I am a cleric who recently had their holy symbol stolen from them (my backup was in my backpack). I needed to cast a spell. From my list of prepared spells I had summon monster, which has both a focus and DF. As a divine spellcaster am I allowed to cast the spell using its focus instead of the divine focus?
[RPG] Can clerics use a focus instead of divine focus when casting a spell
Yes, the wording does mean that a cleric of the Light Domain gains 'Fireball' as part of the Cleric Spell List; and here's why the wording is different. I hope the following helps explain why
"The following spells are added to the warlock spell list for you," which shows that Fiend patron warlocks have Fireball in their spell lists, and so should be able to use Spell Scrolls of fireball.
The above Warlock phrasing, just as it's phrased for Wizards and other spell casting classes that gain extra spells through means of specialization, is phrased that way because each of those classes have a spell list that they must choose spells from as they level up. They do not inherently know all spells available to a Warlock. So the phrasing in this case means the fireball spell is added to the list of spells he can POTENTIALLY add to his 'Spells Known' list. For intents and purposes, those are now on his Warlock Spell List
Now enter Cleric, and the Paladin; which have very different methods of spell learning.
If you have a domain spell that doesn't appear on the cleric spell list, the spell is nonetheless a cleric spell for you."
It must phrase it like this because Clerics and Paladins do not have to choose what spells they learn as they level. Clerics and Paladins inherently have the knowledge of every spell on their list....because we're awesome like that....and can prepare spells as needed in between long rests. If I wanted to go with cure wounds one day and then give up cure wounds to take Inflict Wounds after a long rest? I can do that freely. I have direct access to every spell available to Clerics. So when I choose Light Domain and it says the Fireball spell that isn't on my class list nonetheless becomes a cleric spell? It's now part of my knowledge of cleric spells (On my list of spells), and thus able to be utilized in scroll form since I now have the knowledge of how 'Fireball' works magically.
The only reason it doesn't say these spells are added to your spell list for you, is because it wouldn't matter in a Cleric or Paladin's case. Any spell that's on our spell list is a spell we can cast should we choose to. Any spell that's on a Warlock/Wizard/Sorcerer spell list, is a spell they can cast only if they chose it from their spell list when gaining levels.
Rangers Don't Get Foci
All classes that use a focus have a "Spellcasting Focus" subheading to their Spellcasting (or Warlock) feature:
- Wizard (arcane focus)
- Warlock (arcane focus)
- Sorcerer (arcane focus)
- Paladin (holy symbol)
- Druid (druidic focus)
- Cleric (holy symbol)
- Bard (musical instrument)
The wizards feature for instance reads:
You can use an arcane focus (found in chapter 5) as a spellcasting focus for your wizard spells.
With the exception of the Ranger and Eldritch Knight, which specifically don't mention foci as part of the spell casting feature. Who have no such text.
It Is Intentional
Jeremy Crawford clarified in a tweet that the omission of focus for the ranger class is intentional. He was asked:
[D]o rangers use spellcasting foci, and/or do they need to buy component pouches at 2nd level?
The ranger doesn't have a spellcasting focus. The trusty component pouch will do the job.
This makes sense as most rangers would likely have a bow. All bows, even the hand cross bow (even with Crossbow Expert), requires a free hand to load. So holding a focus would mess with the traditional ranger with bow. You keep a free hand for spells, pouch and loading firing arrows.
Using a bow, you have the weapon in one hand and the other on string. After you fire, your hand is free again. When you cast you pull out the components and put them back, or they are consumed, and your hand is free again. Works great with a bow. However, the arcane and druidic focus require object iterations, and you either have to drop it or spend the book keeping at the start and end of each turn.
Yes, a holy symbol could be worn and keep the hands free, likely why they did that for paladins, but they chose to go a different direction with the ranger.
Ranger forage for food and materials, they are self reliant. It isn't hard to see them restocking their component pouch as they move through the wild area.
What about the Mistletoe?
it might be impossible to find mistletoe in the desert when a material component is needed.
The PHB says this about the component pouch:
Component Pouch. A component pouch is a small, watertight leather belt pouch that has compartments to hold all the material components and other special items you need to cast your spells, except for those components that have a specific cost (as indicated in a spell's description).
The pouch has all the components your spells require, and Material Components aren't consumed unless the spell says they are:
If a spell states that a material component is consumed by the spell, the caster must provide this component for each casting of the spell.
So, you have mistletoe once, and you have it forever -- unless your DM rules that lose it or it goes bad, etc. Then you have to buy more mistletoe or buy a new pouch. Such a thing, however, isn't in the rule.
Unearthed Arcana / Tasha's Cauldron of Everything
A recent released play test (UA), and page 57 of Tasha's Cauldron of Everything (optional rule) provides the following to the Ranger class:
2nd-level ranger feature (enhances Spellcasting)
You can use a druidic focus as a spellcasting focus for your ranger spells. See chapter 5, “Equipment,” of the Player’s Handbook for a list of things that count as druidic focuses.
To cast a divine spell that possesses a divine focus (DF) component, a typical caster must employ a divine focus even if the same spell also possesses an arcane focus component
On Magic on Components on Divine Focus says
In other words, a typical divine caster cannot opt to use the arcane focus instead of a divine focus. For example, a typical level 1 cleric must have a holy symbol to cast a summon monster spell, while a typical level 1 wizard must have a tiny bag and a small candle.
Note: A spell's Components entry can be confusing because sometimes a spell (like the summon monster spells) seems to require a divine focus other than a the cleric's typical divine focus, when, in actuality, the spell doesn't. For example, a summon monster spell's components of V, S, F/DF (a tiny bag and a small candle) include only the necessary arcane focus, boldly assuming the reader knows that the divine caster will need, instead, his divine focus. However, some spells mandate only a focus (e.g. the destruction spell), and both arcane and divine casters must employ such a focus! This isn't helped by a spell like scrying that's just all sorts of confusing. In fact, I find a spell's whole Components entry an alienating jargon issue that I hope is one day cleaned up for ease of use.