Mike Mearls’ unofficial ruling is that Wall of Force does block spells, including lines of effect
Quoting Mike Mearls on Twitter:
Aug 28Jim Miller @pokereleran@mikemearls Is there a line of effect in D&D and does Wall of Force block it?
Mike Mearls – @mikemearls@pokereleran in general, a barrier that stops physical objects stops spells
Rulings from developers on Twitter are in no way considered official rulings, but this is still a ruling from someone who knows the game supremely well.
Since Resilient Sphere is essentially a spherical wall of force, and wall of force breaks line of effect, you cannot cast through it. Any spells targeting an enemy through the sphere fizzle.
Summon monster should not be able to summon anything outside of the sphere. The caster needs line of effect to the point where the monster will be summoned, and resilient sphere prevents this.1
Psionics, if they count as spells, also cannot pass through, unless they specifically ignore line of effect (I don't have the occult book so I don't know much about Pathfinder psionics).
Hexes are a gray area. There is very little information on how they interact with magic, other than them being supernatural abilities. Since they should still follow the general magic rules, I believe they must also have line of effect.
Gaze attacks are specifically called out as working through wall of force, but I don't know of a way to gain a gaze attack off the top of my head. There are no spells that qualify as gaze attacks, either, as far as I know.
1 This is debatable, but probably how I would rule it. The question is, is this spell similar at all to teleport or dimension door? It could be considered either. On one hand, you are designating a location, just like Dimension Door. On the other hand, the range is much shorter. The major difference is, Dimension Door targets you, and you are already inside the sphere.
The Tarrasque would be pushed to one side of the wall when you cast the spell:
If you cast the wall inside the beast, it clearly "cuts through a creature’s space when it appears", and therefore "the creature is pushed to one side of the wall".
Of course, at that point it wouldn't hinder the creature's movement much.
Regarding how this should be narrated by the DM, there isn't much to go on in the spell's description.
For example, what if the wizard shapes the wall into a sphere around himself? This is such an unusual situation, so the DM would have quite a bit of latitude in determining how the result is narrated.
It is fun to imagine that the wizard, in a giant bile filled snow globe, is unceremoniously ejected from the Tarrasque like a hairball from a cat. I'm not sure who comes out ahead in that scenario.