When I had a new player start playing with us about 6 months ago, she had this exact problem. My solution was two-fold.
Reduce the number of options
She wanted to play a druid, so there were lots of spells to pick from. So I reduced the spell list from 7 cantrips and 16 level 1 spells to a list of 3 cantrips and 6 spells (1st level druids pick 2 and 4 respectively).
In my case, she didn't know what sort of role she wanted to fill, or what sort of things she wanted out of her spells, so I picked a decent range of generally useful spells. If your player(s) have a better idea (healing, DPR, charm, illusion, utility, etc...) then you can tailor the selection to that.
I highly suggest if doing this for a caster with semi-permanent spell selection (Bard, Eldritch Knight, Ranger, Arcane Trickster, Sorcerer, Warlock, Wizard) that you allow them to change out their spells more frequently than is permitted in the books as they learn what they do and don't like. For example, if your Bard finds out they aren't a fan of Charm Person, let them swap it out for free, even if they haven't just leveled up.
Make short descriptions of the spells
I also did this for my new player, as druids frequently change out spells. I wrote up short descriptions of each spell, and their general purpose. Some examples:
Shillelagh - hit things better
Entangle - make people move slower in an area
Faerie Fire - turn off invisibility and make people easier to hit
Thunderwave - AoE damage right next to you, and push away
This way, she had a quick idea of what each spell does, and could make the selection from there.
This method seemed to work well, although it's a sample size of 1, so YMMV. I think it requires a certain amount of trust between player and GM (since the GM is reducing their choices), but it gets them on their feet quickly, and if you allow them to change after the fact, it doesn't penalize them for their choices, which will make it easier on them to make a choice.
The standard official character sheet doesn't have a "vision" section, but the "Alternative 2" one from that page does (next to a little icon representing an eye). I understand your confusion, because vision isn't called out as a special game term anywhere in the rules (and that icon, like all icons on this character sheet, is idiosyncratic to this sheet, not used throughout the rules).
However, it's a reasonable section to have, because it's a long-standing idea throughout many editions of D&D that different character races have different types of vision. Particularly, many races have Darkvision. From the basic rules:
Many creatures in fantasy gaming worlds, especially those that dwell underground, have darkvision. Within a specified range, a creature with darkvision can see in darkness as if the darkness were dim light, so areas of darkness are only lightly obscured as far as that creature is concerned. However, the creature can't discern color in darkness, only shades of gray.
So, presumably in this section you would put whether your character has darkvision, and to what distance that darkvision works. This is listed in the "Traits" section of each race — for example, for dwarves:
Darkvision. Accustomed to life underground, you have superior vision in dark and dim conditions. You can see in dim light within 60 feet of you as if it were bright light, and in darkness as if it were dim light. You can’t discern color in darkness, only shades of gray.
so you might write "darkvision (60 feet)". If your character is a Drow (an underground-dwelling elf subrace), you would write "darkvision (120 feet). Or, you might have darkvision from a spell or other source, or something might alter the details. For example, there is a magic item which doubles the range of your darkvision if you have it already.
As noted in the basic rules linked above, other possibilities might include "truesight" or "blindsight". These would be much more rare (but not impossible) for player characters.
Presumably, if you don't have any special vision abilities, you would put "normal" or just leave this section blank. You could ask your DM, although really the point of the sheet is to provide you with the information quickly, so you should do something that makes sense to you (as long as it's clear to the DM, too).
Start with the Giant Badger stats, then apply Companion's Bond effects.
Read through the Animal Companion and Companion's Bond section of the UA revised ranger rules. Look at the Giant Badger stats from the Monster Manual (p. 32), SRD, or D&D Beyond.
The changes to your badger would be:
Whenever you gain a level, you will need to update the badger's stats as well, adding an additional hit die each level, and possibly changing its proficiency bonus and improving ability scores. Your companion will also gain other abilities when you reach 5th, 7th, 11th and 15th level as a ranger.
How can you figure out a creature's proficiency bonus? There are two ways. The first is to look at its Challenge Rating (CR). This is sort of like a character's level, and a creature has a proficiency bonus as if it were a character of the same level as its CR, or a 1st-level character if the creature's CR is less than 1. A giant badger is CR 1/4, so it has the same proficiency bonus as a 1st-level character, or +2.
The other way is to look at the creature's stats and work backwards. A giant badger has a Strength bonus of +1, but its attack bonus is +3. From that you can deduce that its proficiency bonus must be +2, since the badger will be proficient with its attacks.