[RPG] When casting spells, must you provide all of the components


I'm sure this is a basic answer and quite a dumb question, but I really am confused on the matter. When you cast a spell, do you have to provide every component to it, or can you settle for just one, unless otherwise specified (such as a specified gp amount material). For example, a spell with VS components; is such a spell able to be casted simply by speaking the verbal component, or must you speak while performing the somatic components as well?

Best Answer

Spell components are all-or-nothing...

If you can't complete them all, you can't cast the spell.

If you can’t provide one or more of a spell’s components, you are unable to cast the spell. - "Components", PHB p 203 or Components on D&D Beyond

...but there are ways around them.

Depending on the exact class, there are options for the material components - a spellcasting focus can substitute for them. Ranger is notable for not having access to a spellcasting focus, and will always need a component pouch or the specific component.

Sorcerers (with Subtle Spell) and Druids (at L20 via Archdruid) can get around verbal and somatic components, but pretty much everybody else is stuck with them.

Spells cast from magic items don't need the components at all, though the specific item may impose other requirements.