Looking at this thread, there are a few of rage-substitute class features that fit the style you want:
- Berserker Strength (PHB 2, p 33): Lose rage. Gain a rage that activates every time your hp drops to below 5x your barbarian level.
- Crafty Hunter (UA, p 58): Gain favored enemy, archery combat style, improved archery combat style, and greater archery combat style. Lose rage and indomitable will.
The best way to simulate Fezzik is with monk. Call him a brute, but the various unarmed attacks and some of the class features (suitably renamed) fit him quite well, especially with "Decisive Strike (PHB 2, p 51): Lose flurry of blows, gain ability to make one attack that deals double damage." and "Durable (UA, p 58): Gain damage reduction as barbarian. Lose speed enhancement bonus and bonus to AC (but not wisdom to AC)."
The best way to simulate He-man is with Ranger. He even has an animal companion and dual-wields.
The best way to simulate Ox, especially with his superhuman strength and durability is Psychic Warrior, fighter, or equivalent with... a depressing number of templates.
The best way to simulate Bamm-Bamm ... is with Psychic Warrior, his "hitting the floor and causing it to shake" is a great reflavouring of "Shout"
The essence is found in OOTS, where your job "title" doesn't come from your class levels.
Unless a feature that grants you temporary hit points has a duration, they last until they're depleted or you finish a long rest.
Since the Storm Aura's Tundra option doesn't specify a duration, they will remain until the general rule says they disappear.
This is different to how Rage features usually work, but it could be thought of from a flavour perspective as the Rage was what summoned the "icy spirits", but the temp hit points come from the spirits that are now summoned, rather than from the Rage itself.